Rise of Daesh

The Crisis of Europe

Europe 2014.0717

Rise of Daesh

Eurozone crisis (17 July 2014)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

In late 2013, Daesh (the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, also called ISIS or ISIL) had emerged as the dominant group in both civil war-torn northern Syria and western Iraq. In June 2014, they invaded northern Iraq and threatened to take Baghdad. In July, Israel invaded Gaza in response to rocket attacks, but world attention returned to Ukraine once again when a Malaysia Airlines flight was shot down over the separatist Donetsk People's Republic.

Main Events

2014 Northern Iraq offensive

Daesh (the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, a.k.a. ISIL) launched a major offensive in northern Iraq from its bases in Anbar, attacking Samarra on 5 June and seizing Mosul (10 June) and Tikrit (11 June). As Iraqi government forces fled south, Kurdish forces took control in Kirkuk and much of northern Iraq.

US-led intervention in Iraq begins

At the invitation of the Iraqi Government, United States President Barack Obama ordered US troops to Iraq in response to offensives by Daesh (the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, a.k.a ISIL).

Islamic State

Daesh (the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, or ISIL) announced the establishment of a worldwide caliphate, the Islamic State. ISIL's 1st Emir, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, was named as its caliph, taking on the new name "Caliph Ibrahim". The declaration of a caliphate was heavily criticized by Middle Eastern governments, Sunni Muslim theologians and historians, and even other jihadist groups.

July offensive in Donbass

After a week-long ceasefire, Ukraine renewed operations against the insurgents in Luhansk and Donetsk.

2014 Israel-Gaza conflict

Israel launched Operation Protective Edge, a major offensive against the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip. Israel stated that Hamas had been launching rockets into Israeli territory. After seven weeks of fighting, Israel withdrew, with both sides claiming victory.

Battle of Tripoli Airport

The Libya Dawn coalition of revolutionaries launched their operation to seize Tripoli International Airport, on the outskirts of the capital of Libya, defeating the government-funded Zintan Brigades and proclaiming themselves as the new General National Congress. The Council of Deputies, the Libyan parliament, fled for Tobruk in the far east of the country.

Downing of Flight MH-17

Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was shot down near Hrabove, Ukraine, while en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur.

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