Collapse of the Eastern Front

The Great War

Europe 1917.0112

Collapse of the Eastern Front

World War I in Europe and the Russian Revolution (12 January 1917)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

The Brusilov Offensive was to be Russia's last major campaign of the War. Its nearest ally, Romania, was quickly occupied while the Russian Empire's own political, economic, and military troubles would lead to an overthrow of its government in March.

Main Events

Greek National Schism

The outbreak of World War I greatly escalated tensions between the Greek King Constantine I, who favored neutrality, and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, who favored entering the war on the side of the Allies. In 1915, Constantine dismissed Venizelos, who established a rival government, the Provisional Government of National Defense, in Allied-occupied Thessaloniki the following year.

Act of 5th November

On 5 November 1916, Emperors Wilhelm II of Germany and Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary proclaimed the establishment of the Kingdom of Poland, comprising most of what had been Congress Poland. Although many of the Allies supported Polish independence, the proclamation was merely a pretext to conscript Polish troops into the war against Russia, with eventual plans to annex much of the territory.

Central Powers occupy Bucharest

Just four months after entering the war, Romanian forces were forced to retreat east by the Austrians and Germans led by Field Marshal August von Mackensen. On 6 December, the Central Powers entered Bucharest, forcing the Romanian government to retreat to Iași.

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