Croatian War of Independence

Post-Cold War Europe

Europe 1991.1209

Croatian War of Independence

Europe after the Cold War (9 December 1991)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

In July, Slovenia, Croatia, and Yugoslavia had signed the Brioni Agreement, in which Slovenia and Croatia agreed to delay independence for three months. This ended fighting in Slovenia but not Croatia, where the Serb-dominated Yugoslav government continued to back Serb Croat rebels. In October, with the moratorium expired, Croatia confirmed its independence as the war with Yugoslavia intensified.

Main Events

Independence of Macedonia

The Republic of Macedonia declares its independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, after 96.4% of votes in a September 8 referendum approve the move. Due to disputes over its name with Greece, it is not recognized by the United Nations until 1993 when it is accepted as the 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia'.

Independence of Armenia

Following an overwhelming referendum vote in favor of secession, the Republic of Armenia declared its full independence and seceded from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Independence of Croatia

Following the expiry of the three-month moratorium imposed by the Brioni Agreement, the Croatian Parliament confirmed the Croatian declaration of independence and severed all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.

Independence of Turkmenistan

Following a referendum in which 94% vote for independence, the Turkmen Socialist Soviet Republic seceded from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, declaring independence as Turkmenistan.

Chechen Republic

The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria was proclaimed by Dzhokhar Dudayev, seceding from both the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

Independence of Ukraine

The government of Ukraine held a referendum on its 24 August 1991 Act of Declaration of Independence, with 92.3% of votes supporting the secession of Ukraine from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. On the same day, Leonid Kravchuk, the parliament chairman and de facto head of state, was elected to serve as the first President of Ukraine.

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