Liberal Wars

Congress Europe

Europe 1833.0727

Liberal Wars

Congress Europe (27 July 1833)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

When King João VI of Portugal died in 1826, a succession dispute arose between the king's eldest son, Pedro - who was Emperor of Brazil - and his next son, Miguel - who claimed Pedro had forfeited his succession rights by declaring Brazil independent. A compromise was reached whereby Miguel would serve as regent for Pedro's young daughter, Maria, but Miguel took this opportunity to seize the throne himself. This led to revolution in Portugal, with the liberal supporters of Pedro eventually defeating the absolutist Miguelites.

Main Events

Egyptian annexation of Hejaz

In accordance with the Convention of Kütahya, Muhammad Ali's Egypt annexed the Eyalet of Jeddah and Habesh (Hejaz) under the governorship of Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha.

Terceira's northern march

2,500 Liberal troops under the Duke of Terceira landed in the Algarve, on the southern coast of Portugal. From here they advanced rapidly north to capture Lisbon on 24 July without facing significant resistance. Despite this victory, the Miguelites would soon move south to dispute Lisbon and continue the fight for another ten months.

Battle of Cape St. Vincent

A six-ship Portuguese Liberal naval squadron under the command of British officer Charles Napier defeated the ten-ship Miguelite fleet off Cape Saint Vincent, Portugal, capturing six enemy ships. The victory ended the Miguelite naval threat and allowed the Liberals to capture Lisbon.

Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi

The Russian Empire under Tsar Nicholas I and Ottoman Empire under Sultan Mahmud II signed the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, agreeing to an eight-year defensive alliance in the wake of Russian aid to the Ottomans during their war with Muhammad Ali's Egypt. In a secret article in the treaty, the Ottomans also agreed to close the Dardanelles to all foreign warships should Russia command it.

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