Imperial Europe (2 January 1878)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The 1870s saw increasing dissent in the Balkans against Ottoman rule. Meanwhile, Russia had taken advantage of the disruption caused by the rise of Germany to rebuild its forces after the Crimean War. When the Ottoman Empire refused to comply with demands by the Great Powers of Europe to grant reforms to its Balkan subjects, the Russians were ready to invade.
Third Carlist War
Following the overthrow of Queen Isabel II, the Carlists who had opposed her revolted in protest over the appointment of the Liberal Amadeo I as her successor rather than the pretender Carlos VII. Beginning in 1872, the Carlists fought mostly in the Pyrenees, and were defeated after four years.
In the ethnically-mixed Ottoman vilayet of Bosnia and Herzegovina, wealthy Bosniak landowners largely ignored Sultan Abdülmecid I's reform of the tax-farming system, by which the province's predominantly-Christian peasants were employed by the state. In response, the Serbian population of Bosnia and Herzegovina revolted.
An 1875 tax increase on non-Muslims in the Ottoman Empire inflamed nationalist sentiment among Bulgarians, who revolted in the spring of 1876 before being defeated.
Encouraged by the Ottoman failure to defeat the Herzegovina rebellion, the Ottoman vassals of Serbia and Montenegro proclaimed their full independence and declared war.
In response to the escalating turmoil in the Balkans, the governments of Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia met in Constantinople. After agreeing to greater autonomy for Bosnia and Bulgaria, the Ottoman Porte rejected the proposal.
In response to the failure of the Constantinople Conference, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, invading Bulgaria and Dobrogea through Romania, an Ottoman Vassal whose assistance to Russia effectively made the country independent.
Romanian War of Independence
After allowing the passage of Russian troops to fight against the Ottomans, the Principality was effectively independent from Ottoman vassalship. On 21 May 1977 (O.S. 10 May), Prince Carol I officially declared Romanian independence.