Imperial Europe (7 October 1908)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
In October 1908, a new round in the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire began when Bulgaria declared independence and Austria-Hungary proclaimed the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Both acts violated the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, with Austria's actions in particular inflaming relations with Russia and Serbia.
The United Kingdom and the Russian Empire signed the Anglo-Russian Entente in St Petersburg, clarifying their respective influences in south-central Asia. Persia was divided into spheres of influence, with a Russian sphere in the north, a British sphere in the southeast, and a neutral zone in between. Afghanistan was recognized as under British influence and both countries agreed not to interfere in Tibet.
Young Turk Revolution
In response to the continuing decline of the Ottoman Empire and primarily motivated by suspicions over the Anglo-Russian meeting at Reval in June 1908, military officers involved in the Young Turk movement revolted at Resina, Macedonia. Led by Major Ahmed Niyazi, they defeated suppression attempts by Sultan Abdul Hamid II due to the popularity of the Young Turks in the army. On 24 July, the Sultan capitulated and agreed to restore the constitution of 1876.