The Springtime of Peoples
The Year of Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848-1849, the Hungarian Revolution, the First Italian War of Unification and the First Schleswig War (29 April 1850)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The restoration of Austrian power in Hungary and northern Italy encouraged Hanover and Saxony to abandon their alliance with Prussia. Undeterred, the Prussians pushed ahead with the creation of the Erfurt Union, successfully drawing most of the smaller German states into a new federation under Prussian leadership.
Saxony abandons Prussia
The Kingdom of Saxony withdrew from Alliance of Three Kings with Prussia and Hanover.
Hanover abandons Prussia
Kingdom of Hanover followed the lead of Saxony and withdrew from Alliance of Three Kings with Prussia.
Erfurt Union Parliament held
The Kingdom of Prussia held the Erfurt Union Parliament in an attempt to create a new German federation excluding the Austrian Empire. It initially received the support of 22 German states, but lacks the backing of the Kingdoms of Hanover, Saxony, Bavaria, and Wurttemberg.
Pope returns to Rome
Pope Pius IX returned to Rome, Papal States, after the French Empire, which garrisoned the city, assured him it would not meddle in Papal affairs.