Kingdom of Italy

Italian Unification

Europe 1861.0317

Kingdom of Italy

Italian Unification (17 March 1861)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

The conquest of the Two Sicilies left the Kingdom of Sardinia in control of the entire Italian peninsula except for the French-garrisoned Papal States and the Austrian controlled northeast. On March 17 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed, with the former Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia as its ruler.

Main Events

Secession of South Carolina

On 9 November 1860 the South Carolina General Assembly passed a "Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act" and stated its intention to declare secession from the United States. The following month, on 20 December, South Carolina declared its secession from the Union as the "Republic of South Carolina", becoming the first of the slave states to secede.

Siege of Gaeta

The Expedition of the Thousand rapidly forced the King Francis II and his loyalists to retreat to the fortified port city of Gaeta. The Sicilians were convinced to negotiate in December 1860, when the city was ravaged by Typhus, but didn't accept conditions until February 1861. Francis fled to Rome and formed a government in exile.

Kingdom of Italy

Four days after the surrender of Francis II of the Two Sicilies, Sardinian King Victor Emanuel summoned Parliament to proclaim the Kingdom of Italy.

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