Congress Europe (23 September 1830)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The overthrow of King Charles X in France in July 1830 inspired revolutions across Europe, most notably in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, where the Catholic Belgians rebelled against the Protestant Dutch. With Great Power approval, the Kingdom of Belgium was declared in 1831; although it was not until 1839 that the Netherlands would recognize the new country.
On 25 July 1830, King Charles X of France signed the July Ordinances, suspending the liberty of the press and restricting voter rights. In response, revolution broke out in Paris, with the revolutionaries seizing control of the city on 29 July after "Three Glorious Days" of fighting. Forced to admit defeat, Charles abdicated on 2 August. He was succeeded by his distant cousin, Louis-Philippe of the House of Orléans, who agreed to rule as a constitutional monarch.
Starting with riots in Brussels, uprisings spread across the southern provinces of the United Kingdom of Netherlands. The Dutch King William appealed to the Great Powers, but the resulting London Conference approved Belgian independence. Refusing to accept the conference's decision, the Dutch made a belated effort to reconquer Belgium in 1831, only to be forced to back down by French intervention.
German Revolutions of 1830
Inspired by the July Revolution in France, unrest broke out in the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Electorate of Hesse, the Duchy of Brunswick, and a number of other minor German states. As a result, several German leaders were replaced and conservative politicians dismissed. To appease the revolutionaries, constitutions were granted in many of the states, including Hesse in January 1831, Hanover in March, and Saxony in September.