the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be ...
Battle of Konya
After defeating the Ottoman Empire in Syria in 1831-32, Muhammad Ali's Egyptian army invaded the Turkish heartland of Anatolia ...
the Arctic 1837
By the 1830s, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
Second Egyptian-Ottoman War
The Ottoman army attempted to reconquer Syria in 1839, but was routed by the Egyptians. To make matters even worse ...
the Arctic 1882
First International Polar Year
By the 1870s polar exploration was becoming increasingly nationalistic, but some realized that a coordinated approach involving multiple simultaneous expeditions ...
German attempts to keep France isolated by maintaining alliances with the other powers of Europe began to unravel in the ...
East Asia 1900
Battle of Peking
The Chinese Empire considered the Eight-Nation intervention to suppress the Boxer Rebellion a violation of its sovereignty and declared war ...
East Asia 1901
In August 1900, the Allies captured Peking, defeating the remnants of the Boxer Rebellion over the following year. Peace was ...
Consolidation of the Dutch East Indies
Despite its small size, the Netherlands emerged from the 19th century in charge of the rich and populous Dutch East ...
North America 1911
Mexico had been stable for four decades, most of that time under the presidency of Porfirio Diaz. But by 1910 ...
the Arctic 1920
Far Eastern Republic
The Great War ended in November 1918 with an armistice with Germany, encouraging most of the Allies to also end ...
North America 1921
Washington Naval Conference
Following the War, the US and Japan began expanding and modernizing their fleets. To avoid an arms race between these ...
East Asia 1922
Washington Naval Conference
Growing tensions between the U.S., Britain, and Japan over fleet construction led to the Washington Naval Conference, the world ...
the Arctic 1940
Invasion of Iceland
When the Danish government capitulated, Iceland assumed full control over its own affairs. Despite this, and Icelandic insistence on neutrality ...
Blitzkrieg in the West
While the Allies were still dealing with the fall of Denmark and Norway, Germany struck west. The attack began with ...
North America 1941
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Over the course of 1941, US President Franklin Roosevelt gradually increased neutral America's involvement in the War: extending the ...
East Asia 1942
The Japanese quickly overran Allied possessions in China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific as they moved to seize resources and ...
Japan Comes South
Even as their planes racked Pearl Harbor, the Japanese were moving south to conquer the resource-rich colonies of Southeast Asia ...
Southern Asia 1942
Fall of Singapore
By February 1942 the Japanese forces invading Malaya had reached the perimeter of Singapore, Britain’s most important military base ...