The Springtime of Peoples
The Year of Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848-1849, the Hungarian Revolution, the First Italian War of Unification and the First Schleswig War (9 May 1849)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
In Germany, the National Assembly in Frankfurt had produced a constitution for a new German Empire with King Frederick William IV of Prussia as its Emperor. However Frederick William rejected the role while only the smaller German states proved willing to adopt the constitution, provoking a new wave of revolutions in support of the National Assembly.
Battle of Buda
Forces of the Austrian Empire abandoned Buda and Pest, but left a garrison in Buda Castle; Hungarian troops moved into Buda hours later but spent the next month capturing the castle.
French land near Rome
About ten thousand French Republic troops under General Oudinot landed at Civitavecchia, north-west of Rome, in an invasion of Roman Republic.
Austria overruns Tuscany
Fifteen thousand troops of Austrian Empire invaded the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, capturing the capital Florence a month later.
After King Maximilian II of Bavaria rejected the Frankfurt Constitution, a 'provisional defense committee' was declared in Kaiserslautern in Bavarian Rhineland, leading to a region-wide revolt.
May Uprising in Dresden
A popular uprising in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony broke out when King Frederick Augustus II refused to accept the Frankfurt Constitution, forcing the government to flee. The revolutionaries were defeated with the support of troops from the Kingdom of Prussia.
Frankfurt parliament demands all German states accept constitution
The German National Assembly in Frankfurt demanded that all German states accept Constitution of the German Empire (Frankfurt Constitution), threatening to elect a ruler other than King Frederick William IV of Prussia should he continue to reject role of Emperor.
Unrest in Prussian Rhineland
Militia around Elberfeld, Dusseldorf and Solingen, Prussian Rhineland, mutinied in support of the Frankfurt Constitution. They were joined by armed peasants but were swiftly suppressed by troops of the Kingdom of Prussia.