The Great War
World War I in Europe and the Russian Revolution (11 July 1917)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
Although the Russian Empire had ended in the revolution of March 1917, the provisional government which had replaced it remained committed to fighting the Central Powers and launched a renewed invasion of Austria-Hungary in July. However Russian morale was low and the offensive quickly collapsed.
Franco-British forces under the command of Robert Nivelle and Douglas Haig launched the Nivelle offensive in an attempt to break through the German defenses on the Aisne front in northern France. They defeated the Germans at Arras and captured Vimy Ridge, but failed to achieve a strategic victory. The high French casualties involved led to mutinies and the dismissal of Nivelle.
Greeks enter World War I
Following the forced abdication of pro-German King Constantine of Greeece by Prime Minister Venizelos, and his replacement by his son as King Alexander I on 11 June, Greece formally declared war on the Central Powers.
Russian troops attacked the Central Powers in Galicia, Austria-Hungary, quickly advancing on Lemberg (now Lviv). Despite initial successes, Russian morale was low and by 16 July had collapsed completely. On 19 July, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians counterattacked, pushing the Russians back 240 km in only four days.
Battle of Aqaba
After a two month march across the Nefud Desert, some 5000 Arab rebels, led by Auda ibu Tayi and British military advisor T. E. Lawrence ('Lawrence of Arabia'), attacked the Red Sea port of Aqaba with support from a few British naval vessels. The 300-man Ottoman garrison surrendered after a short struggle.