First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be ...
Southern Asia 1916
Russian Invasion of Anatolia
With the British evacuating Gallipoli and in trouble at Kut, many Ottoman troops could now be sent to the Caucasus ...
Southern Asia 1917
Sinai Campaign and Battle of Aqaba
While the British were advancing on Baghdad, they were also reconquering the Sinai Peninsula and ending the Ottoman threat to ...
Although the Russian Empire had ended in the revolution of March 1917, the provisional government which had replaced it remained ...
Treaty of Sevres
Ottoman Turkey was the last of the Central Powers to sign a treaty with the victorious Allies, surrendering much of ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1920
Africa and the Peace Treaties
Fighting continued in East Africa for a few days after the end of World War I in Europe, until news ...
Southern Asia 1920
Treaty of Sèvres
The seizure of Arab Syria cemented France's claim to the region just in time for the Treaty of Sèvres ...
Southern Asia 1921
Rise of Reza Khan
The growing power of Soviet Russia and the threat it posed to Persia, encouraged the British to support the overthrow ...
Southern Asia 1923
Treaty of Lausanne
By 1923 the Turkish War of Independence was all but over, with the Allies abandoning their attempt to partition Anatolia ...
Southern Asia 1927
Treaty of Jeddah
In December 1925 the Saudis completed their conquest of Hejaz, creating the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. In order to ...
Southern Asia 1946
Independence in the Middle East
During World War II, the French had promised Syria and Lebanon independence. After the war, they attempted to revoke these ...
Southern Asia 1949
First Arab-Israeli War
When Israel declared independence in 1948, the surrounding Arab states immediately declared war and invaded it. Although outnumbered, the Israelis ...
After the Suez fiasco, Britain and France abandoned their colonial empires, with France turning to closer ties with its European ...
The crises of the early '60s brought the world to the edge of nuclear war, prompting the United States and ...