First Egyptian-Ottoman War
First Egyptian-Ottoman War
Congress Europe (17 February 1832)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be given Syria. When the Ottomans refused, the Egyptians invaded, easily conquering Syria and defeating the two Ottoman armies sent to expel them.
In the face of the revolutions in central Italy, Pope Gregory XVI and the rulers of Modena and Parma requested Austrian assistance. The Austrians intervened, restoring ducal rule in Modena and Parma and bringing an end to the United Italian Provinces by invading Romagna in the northern Papal States. However France was not happy with Austria occupying part of the Papal States and insisted they withdraw. Romagna went into revolt again, prompting a second Austrian invasion; however this time the French joined in by landing in Ancona. The two powers remained in occupation until 1838.
Ottoman attempts at centralization - especially to abolish the ayan (landlord) system - triggered a revolt by Bosnian ayans, who quickly seized control of most of the Bosnia Eyalet and established their own government in Sarajevo. However the rebels were unable to make headway in Herzegovina, and in February 1832 the Ottoman government moved in, successfully suppressing the uprising by the middle of that year.
End of Mamluk Iraq
In early 1831, plague broke out in the Pashalik of Baghdad - a province of the Ottoman Empire which had long been effectively independent under its Mamluk governors. By April, several thousand people were dying in Baghdad every day, leading to a breakdown in order, exacerbated when the Tigris burst its banks and flooded the city. Taking advantage of the disorder, the Ottoman army intervened in June, forcing the resignation of the last Mamluk ruler, Dawud Pasha.
Ten Days' Campaign
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands invaded the secessionist Kingdom of Belgium in an attempt to bring an end to the Belgian Revolution. The Dutch quickly advanced across the country, prompting the Belgian government to appeal for French military support. With the involvement of France, the Dutch were forced to back down, agreeing to a ceasefire and withdrawing their troops except for a garrison in Antwerp.
Battle of Warsaw
In mid-July 1831, following the exhaustion of the Polish rebel offensive, Russian forces began massing along the Vistula opposite Warsaw. The Russian assault opened on 6 September, with almost 80,000 Russian troops facing around 35,000 Poles. By 8 September, the Russians had taken the city, bringing an end to the November Uprising and prompting many of the remaining Polish rebels to flee to neighboring Prussia.
Egyptian invasion of Syria
In response to the Ottoman refusal to relinquish Syria as a reward for his support against the Greeks, Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent an army north under his son, Ibrahim Pasha, to take the region by force. Egyptian naval superiority allowed them to rapidly seize most of the coastal cities, while on land they captured Jerusalem in December 1831. In April and July 1832, the Egyptians defeated two Ottoman armies in separate battles near Homs, after which they advanced on Aleppo and Antioch to reach the edges of Anatolia.