Cause and Effect
The 2016 Turkish Coup Attempt
On the night of 15 July 2016, elements of the Turkish Army made a bid to seize control in cities ...
the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
the Arctic 1825
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with ...
North America 1842
Conflict with the Comanche did not stop Texas from pursuing its vast territorial claims against Mexico. In 1841 the Texians ...
The call for German unification had led to nationalists congregating in Frankfurt to establish a national assembly and work on ...
The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms ...
First Battle of Custoza
By July, the Austrian forces in Italy had retaken most of Venetia and were ready to launch an all-out attack ...
Having imposed peace on the Sardinians, Austria now turned to crush the revolution in Hungary - even though that country was ...
Alliance of the Three Kings
Prussia responded swiftly to the uprisings in Germany, crushing rebellions in Saxony and the Prussian Rhineland. With its supporters cowed ...
Restoring the Old Order
The French capture of Rome effectively brought an end to the revolution in Italy, allowing Austria to reassert its traditional ...
the Arctic 1850
Search for Franklin
In 1845 the renowned British explorer Sir John Franklin had set off to find the Northwest Passage, but by winter ...
Humiliation of Olmütz
The Erfurt Union did not last long. In autumn the Electorate of Hesse, which formed the crucial bridge between Prussia ...
Second French Empire
While the King of Prussia was backing down in Germany, the ambitious French President Louis-Napoleon was consolidating power in France ...
Outbreak of the Crimean War
In 1853, Russia occupied the Ottoman vassal states of Moldavia and Wallachia. After the Russians refused an ultimatum to withdraw ...
the Arctic 1854
Opening of Japan
Across the Pacific, Japan had kept itself closed off from the world since the 17th century, restricting its contact with ...
Siege of Sevastopol
The Allies decided to destroy Russian power in the Black Sea by capturing the key naval base of Sevastopol, on ...
the Arctic 1855
Crimean War in the Arctic
Other nations were soon to follow the United States in signing treaties with Japan, in particular Great Britain, which was ...
End of the Crimean War
The siege of Sevastopol was poorly managed by both sides, but eventually the Allies prevailed. In 1856, under the additional ...
the Arctic 1859
Russian expeditions and settlers had been infiltrating China's Amur region since the late 1840s. With the Crimean War exposing ...
Solferino and its Aftermath
After the Austrian defeat at Magenta, the people of Parma, Modena and the northern Papal States rose up in support ...