Imperial Europe (1 July 1911)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
In 1911, France sent troops to suppress a rebellion in Morocco. Germany promptly claimed the 1906 Algeciras Agreement had been violated and sent a gunboat to the Moroccan port of Agadir. However, France was backed by the Russians (their allies) and the British (who were alarmed by Germany's growing naval power). In the end, Germany backed down, accepting French control of Morocco in return for gains in equatorial Africa.
British Navy Bill passed due to alarm at growing German naval strength
31 March Incident
On 13 April 1909 (31 March in the Julian-based Rumi calendar), the 11th Salonika Reserve Infantry Division declared itself the Hareket Ordusu ("Army of Action"), marching on the Ottoman capital of Constantinople under the commanded of Mahmud Shevket Pasha to oust the Young Turks and restore the power of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. After several days of street battles, the counter-coup was suppressed and the Sultan forced to abdicate.
Agadir Crisis begins
French troops enter Fez, Morocco, after anti-foreign unrest, leading to Germany accusing France of violating the Algeciras Agreement