By 1844, the French had consolidated their hold over Algeria, but were now facing continuous raids from Algerian fighters taking ...
Germany viewed the Entente Cordiale as a threat and tried to exploit the tensions caused by the war between Russia ...
In 1911, France sent troops to suppress a rebellion in Morocco. Germany promptly claimed the 1906 Algeciras Agreement had been ...
In October 1911, Italy invaded the Ottoman Turkish provinces in North Africa. The Italians quickly conquered the coastal cities but ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1939
Spanish Civil War in Africa
In July 1936 the Spanish Civil War broke out, with the Spanish Nationalists quickly seizing power in Spanish Morocco. The ...
El Alamein and Operation Torch
In November, the tide turned in the Western Desert Campaign when the British defeated Rommel's Afrika Korps at El ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1942
Three French Empires
In November 1942 the Allies landed in Vichy French North Africa and defeated the Axis in Egypt, prompting Germany to ...
Failure of Winter Storm
Convinced that the Sixth Army could still be supplied by air, Hitler had ordered the troops in Stalingrad to hold ...
the Arctic 1942
In early 1942, Germany moved air and naval forces to northern Norway to deal with the increasing shipments of supplies ...
The Allied successes in North Africa had persuaded Germany to land forces in Tunisia. In February, they were joined by ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1943
French Committee of National Liberation
The Free French coexisted with the High Commission of France in Africa from November 1942 until June 1943, each contributing ...
North America 1944
America in World War II
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States, bringing its U-boat campaign to the ...
While the United States and the Soviet Union were facing off in Europe, the European powers were watching their colonial ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1957
Independence of Ghana
Following World War II, the European colonies in West Africa began demanding self-rule and then independence. The first to succeed ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1961
Discord over the Congo
The deposing and later assassination of Congolese PM Lumumba divided the United Nations. The Eastern Bloc countries and many of ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1963
Due to political resistance from the white settler population, Kenya did not gain independence from the UK until December 1963 ...
In 2008 a major financial crisis had broken out in the US and rapidly spread to Europe. Its impact was ...