Post-Cold War Europe
Europe after the Cold War (22 June 1992)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
By 1992, Yugoslavia and Croatia were ready to accept a UN-backed ceasefire. Although this didn't end all fighting in Croatia, it helped shift the battle to newly independent Bosnia-Herzegovina, whose ethnic divisions now triggered a civil war between Serb, Croat, and Bosniak factions. The Serb-dominated rump state of Yugoslavia promptly backed the Bosnian Serbs, giving them a strong advantage over their opponents.
Croatia and Yugoslavia signed a United Nations-brokered agreement in Sarajevo, in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Yugoslavia, arranging for a ceasefire the following day. This allowed for the introduction of the United Nations Protection Force and the demilitarization of areas contested between Croatia and Yugoslav-backed Croatian Serbs.
The twelve member states of the European Community - Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom - signed the Treaty on European Union in Maastricht, Netherlands, undertaking to integrate Europe by creating the European Union on 1 November 1993 and ultimately introducing a single European currency.
The independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina from Yugoslavia received international recognition, despite rising internal tensions. Civil war erupted almost immediately as Bosnian Serbs, allegedly backed by Yugoslavia, began conducting attacks across the country.
Conflict erupted between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the self-proclaimed Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, supported by the Republic of Croatia, despite both sides having initially collaborated against Bosnian Serb and Yugoslav forces. The war lasted for over a year and a half before a ceasefire was finally arranged and a US-mediated peace agreement signed.