Paris Peace Treaties

The Cold War

Europe 1947.021

Paris Peace Treaties

The Cold War in Europe (10 February 1947)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

Even as relations between the Soviet Union and the West were deteriorating, the former Allies still had to work together to reshape Europe. At the Paris Peace Treaties they laid down terms to the countries that had sided with Germany in the War in Europe: Italy, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Finland.

Main Events

Nuremberg Trials

In November 1945, 24 high-ranking Nazi officials were tried by a joint American-British-French-Soviet tribunal for conspiracy, waging wars of aggression, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. All but two were convicted, twelve were executed, and several more received prison sentences or died or went missing before they could be sentenced.

Greek Civil War

After the Axis powers occupied Greece, the Greek contingent of the allied war effort became divided between the government-in-exile of King George II's and the predominantly Communist partisans which oversaw the German withdrawal in 1944. Following the war's end, the Communist Party reorganized into the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE) and fought a guerilla war against the Kingdom, but collapsed in 1948 due to lack of foreign support.

Bizone

In response to the growing economic isolation of the Soviet occupation zone– in violation of the Potsdam Agreements– the United States and United Kingdom agreed to merge their occupation zones and ensure the free movement of agricultural and industrial goods to rebuild the German economy.

Treaty of Peace with Italy

In its treaty with the Allies, Italy agreed to cede Istria, Dalmatia, and all of its colonies. The city of Trieste and its environs would become an international "free city" until later partition between Italy and Yugoslavia in 1954.

Paris Peace Treaties

Under the Paris Peace Treaties, Hungary's borders reverted to those which had existed before the 1938 Munich Agreement. So too did Czechoslovakia, except for Ruthenia, which was ceded to the Soviet Union. Romania agreed to return to its prewar boundaries, with the exceptions of southern Dobruja, which was ceded to Bulgaria, and Bessarabia and Bukovina, which were restored to the Soviet Union.

Paris Peace Treaties

Under the Paris Peace Treaties, Finland ceded Petsamo to the Soviet Union, as had been agreed in the 1944 Moscow Armistice Agreement.

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