The Iron Curtain Descends
By the time the Allies met at Potsdam in September 1945, it was clear that Stalin intended to retain tight ...
Paris Peace Treaties
Even as relations between the Soviet Union and the West were deteriorating, the former Allies still had to work together ...
From 1947, the Western Allies began to economically and politically merge their zones in Germany. In response, the Soviets cut ...
the Arctic 1949
North Atlantic Treaty
World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in Europe. Relations between the ...
NATO and the Two Germanys
On April 4, the United States and its European allies formed the NATO alliance to counter the Soviet Union. On ...
After the death of Stalin in 1953, a thaw in relations between East and West allowed for the end of ...
While the United States and the Soviet Union were facing off in Europe, the European powers were watching their colonial ...
After the Suez fiasco, Britain and France abandoned their colonial empires, with France turning to closer ties with its European ...
The coming of the 1960s saw the Cold War heating up, fueled by advances in missile technology. In 1961, another ...
The crises of the early '60s brought the world to the edge of nuclear war, prompting the United States and ...
Cold War Rivalry in the Middle East
In 1967, Israel conquered large swathes of Arab territory, which Soviet-supported Egypt and Syria attempted to retake in 1973. When ...
the Arctic 1977
In 1949, the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear device, leading to an arms and technology race with the US ...
To defuse tensions in the Middle East, the US encouraged a permanent peace settlement between Egypt and Israel. However, while ...
Fall of the Berlin Wall
By the 1980s, the Eastern Bloc had begun to fall dangerously behind the West both economically and technologically. To address ...
Reunification of Germany
Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria threw off Communist rule shortly after East Germany, marking the effective end of the Cold War ...
The first challenge to the post-Cold War order came in August 1990, when Saddam Hussein's Iraq invaded and annexed ...
Breakup of Yugoslavia
With change sweeping Europe, the multi-ethnic communist federation of Yugoslavia, already suffering from nationalistic tensions, began to break apart. In ...
Soviet Coup Attempt
By now the forces unleashed by Gorbachev were beginning to test the structural integrity of the Soviet Union itself. In ...
The first Soviet republics to break away were the Baltic states, whose 1940 annexation by the Soviet Union had never ...
Croatian War of Independence
In July, Slovenia, Croatia, and Yugoslavia had signed the Brioni Agreement, in which Slovenia and Croatia agreed to delay independence ...