Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War

The Rise of Fascism

Europe 1936.072

Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War

The Rise of Fascism in Italy, National Socialism in Germany, the Spanish Civil War, and the expansion of Nazi Germany (20 July 1936)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

In Spain, tensions had been rising between the reformist republican government and conservative nationalist elements. In July 1936, the Nationalists rose up, seizing control of much of the Spanish countryside. In the ensuing Civil War, Germany and Italy would be able to test their new armaments by supporting the Nationalists while the Soviet Union supported the Republicans.

Main Events

Spanish Civil War starts

On 17 July 1936, officers of the Spanish Army staged a coup against the ruling left-wing Popular Front. The armed forces immediately assumed control over much of the country, beginning the Spanish Civil War.

Montreux Convention

The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits was signed at the Montreux Palace in Switzerland by Australia, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Romania, the Soviet Union, Turkey, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia, with Italy refusing to attend. Effective 9 November 1936, the convention gave Turkey full control over the Bosporus Straits and the Dardanelles while guaranteeing free passage to civilian vessels in peacetime.

Belgium declares neutrality

In response to the remilitarization of the Rhineland, King Leopold III of Belgium announced on 14 October 1936 that his country would henceforth revert to the policy of neutrality that had existed before the war, in accordance with the 1839 Treaty of London.

About this map     Download map