First Egyptian-Ottoman War
First Egyptian-Ottoman War
Congress Europe (21 December 1832)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be given Syria. When the Ottomans refused, Egypt invaded, easily conquering Syria before pushing into the Turkish heartland of Anatolia. At the Battle of Konya, the Egyptians routed their opponents, opening the way to the Ottoman capital of Constantinople.
Organic Statute of Poland
In the aftermath of the November Revolution, Tsar Nicholas I restored the Kingdom of Poland within the Russian Empire. The Polish Constitution was replaced with the Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland, abolishing the Sejm (parliament) and merging the Polish Army with the Russian Army. The personal union that the Kingdom had formerly had with the Russia Empire was also ended; instead Poland was deemed eternally incorporated within Russia.
Following the death of Jean Maximilien Lamarque - a popular Napoleonic war hero and outspoken republican - of cholera on 1 June 1832, riots broke out in Paris. On 5 and 6 June, 3,000 Parisian republicans seized control of eastern and central parts of the city in an uprising against King Louis Philippe, but were soon crushed by the army. This revolution was witnessed by author Victor Hugo and would later be described in his novel Les Misérables.
Portuguese Liberal troops under former King Pedro IV - also former Emperor Pedro of Brazil - landed at Pampelido, at the mouth of the Mindelo to the north of Porto. The next day they entered Porto itself, which was immediately besieged by the Miguelite army. The siege would not be lifted until August the following year.
The France, Russia, and the United Kingdom signed the Treaty of Constantinople with the Ottoman Empire, bringing an end to the Greek War of Independence. The treaty established Greece as an independent state and defined the Arta-Volos line as its northern frontier. As the Great Powers had decided that Greece would become a kingdom, the throne was given to Prince Otto, second son of the King of Bavaria.
Siege of Antwerp
The French Armée du Nord under Marshal Gérard besieged the Dutch garrison in Antwerp, Belgium, on behalf of Belgian King Leopold I. The Dutch had remained fortified in the town's citadel after the rest of their forces had withdrawn from Belgium in 1831, but capitulated to the French after a one-month campaign.
Battle of Konya
In mid-December 1832, a force of 53,000 Ottoman troops and 100 guns under Reşid Mehmed Pasha advanced on Ibrahim Pasha's 15,000 Egyptian troops and 52 guns while they were in occupation of Konya, on the Anatolian plateau in the Ottoman Empire. While the Ottomans maneuvered to cut the Egyptian supply route to Syria, Ibrahim led his men out of the city, completing routing the larger army and capturing Reşid Mehmed. The victory opened the way to Constantinople.