First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be ...
First Carlist War
Opposition to liberal reforms in Spain led to an uprising in 1833, with the pro-absolutist Carlists supporting the claim of ...
The success of the French and Italian revolutions helped inspire uprisings across the German Confederation, with nationalists calling for a ...
In Germany, the National Assembly in Frankfurt had produced a constitution for a new German Empire with King Frederick William ...
The restoration of Austrian power in Hungary and northern Italy encouraged Hanover and Saxony to abandon their alliance with Prussia ...
Humiliation of Olmütz
The Erfurt Union did not last long. In autumn the Electorate of Hesse, which formed the crucial bridge between Prussia ...
Spectre of Communism
When the Great War ended, the Bolsheviks renounced their treaty with Germany and began to reconquer the old Russian Empire ...