November Uprising in Poland
When revolutions broke out in France and Belgium in 1830, the conservative Russian government decided to send its Polish Army ...
First Egyptian-Ottoman War
In return for assisting the Ottoman Empire in Greece, Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali - nominally an Ottoman governor - demanded he be ...
Battle of Konya
After defeating the Ottoman Empire in Syria in 1831-32, Muhammad Ali's Egyptian army invaded the Turkish heartland of Anatolia ...
In the early 1840s, Switzerland was still more a confederation of cantons than a nation state. The leading Radical Party ...
The call for German unification had led to nationalists congregating in Frankfurt to establish a national assembly and work on ...
The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms ...
Schleswig and Holstein were two largely German duchies which had long been ruled by Denmark. In 1863 the Danes revised ...
Central Power Breakthrough in the East
Italy joined the Allies in May, but the rest of the year favored the Central Powers. In August the Germans ...
Collapse of the Eastern Front
The Brusilov Offensive was to be Russia's last major campaign of the War. Its nearest ally, Romania, was quickly ...
By February 1917 (according to the old style Julian calendar still in use in Russia), the Tsarist system was on ...
January Revolt in Germany
Following the 1918 armistice with Germany, American, Belgian, British, and French troops moved into the German Rhineland. Meanwhile the Workers ...
Creation of the Far Eastern Republic
On the night of April 4-5, Japanese retaliated for the Nikolayevsk Incident by assaulting Russian partisan positions in the Far ...
Treaty of Trianon
Due to the revolutions and invasions that followed the end of the Great War, it wasn't until 1920 that ...
Treaty of Rapallo
During the Great War, Italy and Serbia had been given conflicting promises of territory by the Allies. When the War ...
Limits of Soviet Expansion
With their success in Russia, the Bolsheviks had hoped to spread the Revolution across Europe. However, their setbacks in the ...
By 1925, Germany and the European Allies wanted to restore good relations. As a result, they signed the Locarno Treaties ...
Appeasement at Munich
From March 1938, pro-Nazis in the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia with a large German population, started pressing for autonomy ...
the Arctic 1939
Outbreak of World War II
While Norway and Denmark were disputing ownership of Eastern Greenland, Japan invaded Manchuria and Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. By ...
Invasion of Poland
The signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop_Pact in August 1939 removed the threat from Russia, allowing Hitler to invade Poland on 1 ...
On 23 August 1939, even while it was fighting Japan on the Mongolian border, the Soviet Union shocked the world ...