The Cold War
The Cold War in Europe (26 June 1963)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The coming of the 1960s saw the Cold War heating up, fueled by advances in missile technology. In 1961, another crisis hit Berlin when the communist East German government built a wall to stop its citizens fleeing to the west. The Berlin Wall would keep Germans divided for 28 years.
Zurich and London Agreement
In 1959, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Greece, and the Cypriot community negotiated to establish an independent, bi-national state in Cyprus. Independence went into effect on 16 August 1960, though the United Kingdom still retained sovereignty over military bases on the island.
Independence of Kuwait
The British protectorate over the Sheikhdom of Kuwait ended. The Sheikhdom became independent as the State of Kuwait with former Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah as Emir.
Throughout the 1950s, millions of East Germans had migrated into the west, especially through West Berlin, which was not officially part of West Germany and had an open border with the East. To stop this migration, the East German government began construction in 1961 of a heavily fortified wall surrounding West Germany.
Independence of Algeria
Following a UN resolution in favor of Algerian independence, the French government opened negotiations with the FLN. A ceasefire began in March 1962, followed by two referendums on independence. On 3 July, two days after the second referendum yielded overwhelming support for independence, France recognized the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria.
Cuban Missile Crisis
On 14 October 1962, the United States obtained photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba from one of their U-2 spy planes. Four days later, US President John F. Kennedy notified the nation and initiated a naval blockade of Cuba. This led to an 11-day confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union, ultimately resulting in the Soviets withdrawing their missiles from Cuba in return for a secret withdrawal of US missiles from Turkey.
"Ich bin ein Berliner"
Following the construction of the Berlin Wall, US President John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin and reaffirmed American support for West Germany.