The success of the French and Italian revolutions helped inspire uprisings across the German Confederation, with nationalists calling for a ...
Humiliation of Olmütz
The Erfurt Union did not last long. In autumn the Electorate of Hesse, which formed the crucial bridge between Prussia ...
Aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War
The Russian victory over Turkey alarmed the other Great Powers. At the Congress of Berlin, they overruled San Stefano. Russian ...
Scramble for Africa
In 1881 France alarmed Italy by seizing Tunisia. The next year Britain occupied Egypt, infuriating France - which had built and ...
January Revolt in Germany
Following the 1918 armistice with Germany, American, Belgian, British, and French troops moved into the German Rhineland. Meanwhile the Workers ...
Fall of Berlin
By now it was all over for Nazi Germany. With the overwhelming military might of the Allies advancing on all ...
Battle of Berlin
In April, the Soviets surrounded and attacked Berlin. On the 30th, Adolf Hitler committed suicide and by May 2, resistance ...
the Arctic 1945
While the Germans were withdrawing from Finland, the Soviets attacked in northern Scandinavia, capturing Petsamo (Finland) and Kirkenes (Norway) and ...
The unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8 marked the end of the War in Europe. The cost had been ...
Division of Germany
With the Nazis defeated, the four Allied powers - Britain, France, the US, and the Soviet Union - divided Germany into four ...
Southern Asia 1945
Reconquest of Burma
In March and April 1945 the British advanced south into Japanese-occupied Burma, capturing Rangoon in an amphibious assault in early ...
South America 1948
Following the end of World War II, suspicion and hostility grew between the United States and the Soviet Union. In ...
As a result of the War, Germany had been divided into Allied zones of occupation. The German capital, Berlin, was ...
From 1947, the Western Allies began to economically and politically merge their zones in Germany. In response, the Soviets cut ...
North America 1949
North Atlantic Treaty
World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in Europe. Relations between the ...
NATO and the Two Germanys
On April 4, the United States and its European allies formed the NATO alliance to counter the Soviet Union. On ...
The coming of the 1960s saw the Cold War heating up, fueled by advances in missile technology. In 1961, another ...
Height of the Cold War
Although the Warsaw Pact was officially a defensive alliance, attempts to break with the Pact were crushed in Hungary (1956 ...
Fall of the Berlin Wall
By the 1980s, the Eastern Bloc had begun to fall dangerously behind the West both economically and technologically. To address ...
North America 1989
End of the Cold War
The US funded the Nicaraguan Contras partly through secret arms sales to embargoed Iran, causing a political scandal when uncovered ...