Congress Europe (10 September 1844)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
By 1844, the French had consolidated their hold over Algeria, but were now facing continuous raids from Algerian fighters taking refuge in neighboring Morocco. In response, France attacked Morocco, forcing it to recognize French rule in Algeria and end its support for the Algerian rebels.
Defeat of Abdelkader
Under the command of Governor-general Thomas Robert Bugeaud, the French intensified their campaign in Algeria. Adopting guerrilla tactics and a scorched-earth policy, Bugeaud broke into Abdelkader's state, capturing Mascara and Tlemcen. Deprived of Moroccan support following the Franco-Moroccan War, Abdelkader surrendered to the French in 1847.
The Great Powers - France (marking its return to the concert of Europe), Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the United Kingdom - concluded the Straits Convention in London, closing the Turkish Straits to all warships, excepting those of the Ottoman Empire's allies during wartime. The agreement was a blow to Russia as it severely restricted Russian naval access to the Mediterranean Sea.
3 September Revolution
The autocratic rule of King Otto, supported by officials who mostly harked from his native Bavaria, was resented by many in Greece. A radical conspiracy formed to enforce a constitution on the king and expel the Bavarians, but was uncovered by the police by the night of 2 September 1843. Learning of their exposure, Colonel Dimitrios Kallergis - commander of the Athens cavalry and one of the conspirators - immediately led his followers to the palace, where he met support among the troops. King Otto backed down, yielding to the demands of the revolutionaries and granting the 1844 Constitution.
In retaliation for Morocco's harboring of the Algerian resistance leader Emir Abdelkader and his followers, the French navy bombarded Tangiers and moved on Mogador. In the meantime, French troops crossed into Morocco, defeating the Moroccan army at Isly - near Oujda and the border - on 14 August. The war ended on 10 September, when Morocco signed the Treaty of Tangiers, officially recognizing French rule in Algeria.
Bombardment of Mogador
After bombarding the Moroccan city of Tangiers, fifteen French warships under the command of Prince de Joinville sailed for Mogador, Morocco's main Atlantic trade port. They arrived in Mogador Bay on 11 August 1844 and, after a 4-day delay due to bad weather, proceeded to bombard the city for 26 hours. On 16 August, the French landed 600 troops, capturing Mogador and demolishing its defenses.