NATO and the Two Germanys

The Cold War

Europe 1949.1007

NATO and the Two Germanys

The Cold War in Europe (7 October 1949)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

On April 4, the United States and its European allies formed the NATO alliance to counter the Soviet Union. On May 12, the Soviets ended the Berlin blockade. Eleven days later, the western occupation zone of Germany became an independent republic. The Soviet-occupied east followed suit in October.

Main Events

1949 Armistice Agreements

Between February and July 1949, the government of Israel signed armistice agreements with Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria. Under these agreements, 78% of what had been Mandatory Palestine was placed under Israeli control. In exchange for peace, Jordan was allowed to maintain control of the mountainous region henceforth known as the West Bank, which it annexed unilaterally on 24 April 1950, while Egypt continued to occupy the coastal region known as the Gaza Strip. Following these agreements, the 1949 Lausanne Conference recognized all areas under Israeli control to be part of Israel.

North Atlantic Treaty

The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington DC, creating a formal alliance - the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO - between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. The treaty, primarily directed against the Soviet Union, committed each member state to consider any armed attack against another member state, in Europe or North America, to be an attack against them all.

Soviet Union officially lifts Berlin blockade

German Federal Republic

On 1 June 1948, the Anglo-American Bizone was merged with France to become the Trizone. On 12 May 1949, the western Allies agreed to implement a constitution for the Trizone, establishing the German Federal Republic (West Germany) on 23 May.

Soviet Union tests their first nuclear weapon

Democratic Republic of Germany established

About this map