The Cold War
The Cold War in Europe (1 August 1948)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
From 1947, the Western Allies began to economically and politically merge their zones in Germany. In response, the Soviets cut off land and water access to Berlin from the west. However, the Western Allies were able to save Berlin from being starved into surrender by providing to all the city's needs through airlifts. Unwilling to start a war by shooting down the supply aircraft, the Soviets were forced to back down.
U.S. Congress passes Marshall Aid Act, contributing $5.3 billion for European recovery
Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) set up in Paris to administer Marshall Plan (fore runner of OECD)
Israeli Declaration of Independence
David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and the chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared the establishment of the State of Israel. The declaration became effective upon the termination of the British Mandate over Palestine at midnight.