Restoring the Old Order

The Springtime of Peoples

Europe 1849.0828

Restoring the Old Order

The Year of Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848-1849, the Hungarian Revolution, the First Italian War of Unification and the First Schleswig War (28 August 1849)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

The French capture of Rome effectively brought an end to the revolution in Italy, allowing Austria to reassert its traditional dominance in the north in August. At the same time, Russian intervention helped Austria crush the Hungarian rebellion while Prussia stamped out the last remnants of republicanism in Germany.

Main Events

Austrians take Buda-Pest

Austrian Imperial forces led by Julius Jacob von Haynau capture twin cities of Buda and Pest, capital of Hungarian Republic

Prussia occupies Baden

Troops of Kingdom of Prussia capture Rastatt, bringing an end to Republic of Baden

Garibaldi takes refuge in San Marino

After marching across central Italy, avoiding French, Spanish, and Austrian patrols, Giuseppe Garibaldi and his remaining 250 followers take refuge in Republic of San Marino

Peace between Austria & Sardinia

Kingdom of Sardinia and Austrian Empire sign Peace Treaty of Milan, concluding First Italian War of Independence; Sardinia renounces its claims to external territories and pays Austria an indemnity of 75 million francs

Hungarians surrender at Vilagos

Hungarian General Artur Gorgey surrenders at Vilagos, Kingdom of Hungary, to Count Theodor von Rudiger of Russian Empire, formally ending Hungarian Revolution

Austrians enter Venice

As agreed in prior negotiations, Austrian forces led by Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky march into Venice, accepting complete surrender of Venetian Republic of San Marco to Austrian Empire

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