Restoring the Old Order
The Springtime of Peoples
Restoring the Old Order
The Year of Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848-1849, the Hungarian Revolution, the First Italian War of Unification and the First Schleswig War (28 August 1849)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
The French capture of Rome effectively brought an end to the revolution in Italy, allowing Austria to reassert its traditional dominance in the north in August. At the same time, Russian intervention helped Austria crush the Hungarian rebellion while Prussia stamped out the last remnants of republicanism in Germany.
Fall of Buda-Pest
After invading Hungary with Russia in June 1849, some 60,000 Austrian Imperial troops led by Julius Jacob von Haynau recaptured the twin cities of Buda and Pest, capital of the secessionist Hungarian Republic, on 18 July.
Fall of Rastatt
In response to the May Uprising in Baden in 1849, Prussian troops under the leadership of Prince Wilhelm - later Wilhelm I of Germany - set out to crush the secessionist Republic of Baden. When Lorenzo Brentano, provisional president of Baden, hesitated to respond, he was overthrown by hardliners under Gustav Struve and Polish revolutionary Ludwik Mieroslawski. Nonetheless, Prussian forces prevailed, capturing the revolutionary center of Rastatt - at the time containing one of the strongest fortresses in Germany - and bringing an end to the short-lived republic.
Garibaldi's refuge in San Marino
After marching across central Italy, avoiding French, Spanish, and Austrian patrols, Giuseppe Garibaldi and his remaining 250 followers took refuge in the Republic of San Marino. His wife Anita, pregnant to their fifth child, had died near Comacchio during the retreat. Garibaldi would spend the next few years in exile, traveling to New York, Central America, Peru, and various points around the Pacific, before returning to Italy in 1854.
Treaty of Milan
The Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire signed the Peace Treaty of Milan, concluding the First Italian War of Independence. Sardinia renounced its claims to external territories and paid Austria an indemnity of 75 million francs.
Surrender at Világos
Hungarian General Artur Gorgey surrendered at Világos, Kingdom of Hungary, to Count Theodor von Rüdiger of the Russian Empire, formally ending the Hungarian Revolution. Despite Russian pleas for clemency, Austria enforced harsh reprisals against the Hungarian rebels, sentencing hundreds of soldiers and civilians to death and imprisoning many more.
End of Republic of San Marco
In May 1849 Austrian forces under Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky began their attack on the secessionist Republic of San Marco in Venice, which had vowed to fight on despite the defeat of Italian forces at Novara. After months of bombardment and with famine and cholera rampant in the city, the Venetian assembly finally gave President Daniele Manin authority to seek terms, which were agreed to on 22 August. Five days later, Radetzky marched his troops into Venice, accepting the complete surrender of the republic to the Austrian Empire.