Restoring the Old Order

The Springtime of Peoples

Europe 1849.0828

Restoring the Old Order

The Year of Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848-1849, the Hungarian Revolution, the First Italian War of Unification and the First Schleswig War (28 August 1849)

Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean

The French capture of Rome effectively brought an end to the revolution in Italy, allowing Austria to reassert its traditional dominance in the north in August. At the same time, Russian intervention helped Austria crush the Hungarian rebellion while Prussia stamped out the last remnants of republicanism in Germany.

Main Events

Austrians take Buda-Pest

Austrian Imperial forces led by Julius Jacob von Haynau captured twin cities of Buda and Pest, capital of Hungarian Republic.

Prussia occupies Baden

Troops of the Kingdom of Prussia captured Rastatt, bringing an end to the Republic of Baden.

Garibaldi takes refuge in San Marino

After marching across central Italy, avoiding French, Spanish, and Austrian patrols, Giuseppe Garibaldi and his remaining 250 followers took refuge in the Republic of San Marino.

Peace between Austria & Sardinia

The Kingdom of Sardinia and Austrian Empire signed the Peace Treaty of Milan, concluding the First Italian War of Independence. Sardinia renounced its claims to external territories and paid Austria an indemnity of 75 million francs.

Surrender at Világos

Hungarian General Artur Gorgey surrendered at Világos, Kingdom of Hungary, to Count Theodor von Rudiger of the Russian Empire, formally ending the Hungarian Revolution.

Austrians enter Venice

As agreed in prior negotiations, Austrian forces led by Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky marched into Venice, accepting the complete surrender of the Venetian Republic of San Marco to the Austrian Empire.

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