the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
the Arctic 1825
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with ...
North America 1840
Mexico was more stable than Central America, but only marginally so. Under the Centralist regime which had held sway since ...
North America 1849
California Gold Rush
Just days before the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California ...
Alliance of the Three Kings
Prussia responded swiftly to the uprisings in Germany, crushing rebellions in Saxony and the Prussian Rhineland. With its supporters cowed ...
Restoring the Old Order
The French capture of Rome effectively brought an end to the revolution in Italy, allowing Austria to reassert its traditional ...
North America 1855
In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act created the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening them up for settlement and granting ...
North America 1861
Attack on Fort Sumter
Despite the Confederacy's declaration of independence, the United States Army still garrisoned a number of forts in the south ...
North America 1861
Fight for Kentucky
When the Civil War broke out, Kentucky had declared neutrality. This situation lasted for over three months, until a Confederate ...
North America 1862
Capture of New Orleans
Union successes in Tennessee forced the Confederates to send troops and materiel north up the Mississippi River, stripping their defenses ...
North America 1863
Dominican Restoration War
In 1861, facing bankruptcy and a potential Haitian invasion, the government of the Dominican Republic had requested re-annexation by Spain ...
North America 1865
Surrender of Army of Northern Virginia
Having consolidated in Georgia, Sherman turned north to invade the Carolinas and link up with Union forces in Virginia. Meanwhile ...
The 1870s saw increasing dissent in the Balkans against Ottoman rule. Meanwhile, Russia had taken advantage of the disruption caused ...
North America 1895
Nicaragua and Venezuela Crises
In 1894, Nicaragua annexed the Mosquito Reserve, violating a previous treaty with Great Britain. In response, the British occupied Corinto ...
North America 1898
By 1898, the long-running Cuban war for independence was aggravating US-Spanish relations. In February, the USS Maine sunk in an ...
Britain's Splendid Isolation
At the close of the Nineteenth Century, Great Britain was still Europe's foremost power but was facing ever greater ...
North America 1900
Thousand Days' War
The Spanish-American War gave the US an empire in the Caribbean and the Pacific and marked its emergence as a ...
East Asia 1901
In August 1900, the Allies captured Peking, defeating the remnants of the Boxer Rebellion over the following year. Peace was ...
Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War
In Spain, tensions had been rising between the reformist republican government and conservative nationalist elements. In July 1936, the Nationalists ...
Even more concerning to the Soviets than Japan's occupation of Manchuria, the deeply anti-Communist Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor ...