First Carlist War
First Carlist War
Congress Europe (17 June 1834)
Historical Map of Europe & the Mediterranean
Opposition to liberal reforms in Spain led to an uprising in 1833, with the pro-absolutist Carlists supporting the claim of Prince Carlos to the Spanish throne over the infant Isabella II. Supported by the British, French, and newly liberal Portuguese, the Spanish liberals eventually prevailed in a six-year war. Even so, they would face repeated Carlist-related unrest into the 1870s.
Outbreak of First Carlist War
When Ferdinand VII of Spain died on 29 September 1833, Queen Cristina assumed the regency on behalf of their infant daughter, Isabel II. In neighboring Portugal, this was challenged by the late king's brother, who proclaimed himself as King Carlos V. From 3 October, uprisings broke out across Spain in support of Carlos; these so-called Carlists were mostly conservative, with a strong presence in the Basque regions, Aragon, and Catalonia.
The 1833 Zollverein treaties came into force, merging the Bavaria–Württemberg Customs Union, the Central German Union, and the Prussia–Hesse-Darmstadt Customs Union to formally create the Zollverein - a customs union covering most of the states of northern and western Germany. In 1835 and 1836, Baden and Frankfurt would join, followed by Luxembourg in 1842, Hanover in 1851, and Oldenburg in 1852. As Austria was excluded from the union, the Zollverein helped economically consolidate the other German states under the leadership of Prussia.
Peasants' revolt in Palestine
Rural clans and pro-Ottoman notables in Palestine revolted against Egyptian conscription orders, briefly capturing Jerusalem before the arrival of Egyptian troops under Ibrahim Pasha. The revolt then spread to Hebron, Jaffa, Nablus, and other towns, but was mostly suppressed by August.
Concession of Evoramonte
The Liberals and the Miguelites signed the Concession of Evoramonte at Evoramonte, Portugal, bringing an end to the six-year Portuguese civil war known as the Liberal Wars. By the terms of the concession, Dom Miguel I abandoned his claim to the Portuguese throne and agreed to go into exile, thus essentially conceding victory to Dom Pedro and the Liberals. In return, Dom Miguel was granted an annual pension and a general amnesty was granted to all political crimes committed by both sides since 21 July 1826.