The apparent success of the European revolutions belied the divisions between the city-based reformers, who desired everything from moderate reforms ...
Although the Russian Empire had ended in the revolution of March 1917, the provisional government which had replaced it remained ...
Bolsheviks Gain Control in Russia
By December 1917, Lenin's Bolsheviks controlled many of the major cities of Russia and the Republic had collapsed. Resistance ...
The end of the First World War had slowly led to the withdrawal of German troops. Finally free from pressure ...
Whites in Retreat
Uprisings behind Denikin's stretched lines, especially by Nestor Makhno's anarchists, brought an end to the White advance in ...
On November 15, 1920, the remaining White forces in the west evacuated the Crimea. This marked a new phase in ...
Limits of Soviet Expansion
With their success in Russia, the Bolsheviks had hoped to spread the Revolution across Europe. However, their setbacks in the ...
1929 Sino-Soviet Conflict
By 1929, Chiang Kaishek's Nationalists were rapidly reunifying China. With Chiang's backing, the Manchurian warlord seized the part-Soviet ...
Even more concerning to the Soviets than Japan's occupation of Manchuria, the deeply anti-Communist Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor ...
End of Czechoslovakia
The 1938 Munich Agreement did not end German expansionism. In March 1939, Hitler encouraged the breakup of what was left ...
After expanding into Poland and the Baltic states, the Soviet Union launched an invasion of Finland in late 1939. Despite ...
In sharp contrast to the lackluster performance of the Soviets in Finland, the Germans scored success after success in their ...
Southern Asia 1941
The Vichy French in Syria and Lebanon not only supported the pro-German coup in Iraq but agreed to host German ...
Fall of the Ukraine
At the end of July, Hitler decided to halt the German advance on Moscow and seize the industry and resource ...
South America 1941
In July 1941, while the eyes of the world were focused on Hitler's invasion of Russia, the long-standing border ...
East Asia 1941
Eve of Pearl Harbor
Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June, but Japan declined to join her ally, resolving instead to occupy the rest ...
Sub-Saharan Africa 1942
In December 1941 Japan entered World War II by attacking US and British bases in the Pacific. The following March ...
On June 28, Germany launched its great offensive of 1942: Case Blue, an attack across southern Russia to seize the ...
After the death of Stalin in 1953, a thaw in relations between East and West allowed for the end of ...
The first Soviet republics to break away were the Baltic states, whose 1940 annexation by the Soviet Union had never ...