Russian Invasion of Anatolia
The Great War in the Middle East
Southern Asia 1916.0521
Russian Invasion of Anatolia
Middle Eastern Theatre of World War I (21 May 1916)
Historical Map of South & Southwest Asia
With the British evacuating Gallipoli and in trouble at Kut, many Ottoman troops could now be sent to the Caucasus front. Anticipating this, Russia launched a preemptive winter offensive, catching the Ottomans by surprise and capturing the strategic city of Erzurum. At the same time, the Russians pushed across western Persia, temporarily sealing off that region from Ottoman influence.
British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf
The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintains British India influence in a number of Gulf states. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.
Trucial Oman is the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region are often called the Trucial States, and will become the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they have little unity, with no regional council until 1952.
The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, is comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.
The area under direct British rule is known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.
Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, are the hundreds of protectorates or 'princely states'. These are indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others are either collected into agencies - which may in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fall under the sway of the provinces.
Russia invades eastern Anatolia, capturing the important Ottoman fortified city of Erzurum.
Russian troops led by Nikolai Baratov advance from Hamadan, Persia, to Kermanshah, defeating Ottoman Imperial forces and their Persian tribal allies in the area. From here they invade the border regions of Mesopotamia, effectively sealing Persia off from the Ottomans.
In the wake of Percy Sykes' arrival at Bandar Abbas, Qavam-ol-Molk, the former governor-general of Fars, departs Bushire for Shiraz, assisted by British arms and artillery. He defeats the Persian gendarmes near Lar, but is killed not long after in a hunting accident. He is succeeded by his 28 year-old son, Ibrahim Qavam, who enters Shiraz and inflicts vengeance on those who had ousted his father in November 1915. At the same time, the pro-British faction in Kerman seizes control of its city from the gendarmes.
Formation of South Persia Rifles
British Brigadier-General Sir Percy M. Sykes lands in Bandar Abbas with instructions to set up a "Persian force" for the maintenance of "law and order" in southern Persia. This force is named the South Persia Rifles and, while paid for and officered by the British, will come to consist almost entirely of local troops. Sykes then marches to Kerman, establishing another brigade of the SPR and preparing to cross to Shiraz.
Restoration of Republic of China
Following provincial rebellions, the withdrawal of support of foreign powers, and threats to invade by the Empire of Japan, Yuan Shikai, the Hongxian Emperor, disestablishes the Empire of China and reinstates the Republic of China.
The secret Asia Minor Agreement (later to be called the Sykes-Picot Agreement) is signed by British and French representatives. The agreement, authored by Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot, proposes dividing the Ottoman territories in Mesopotamia and greater Syria into British and French spheres of influence and control.
Departure of Niedermayer-Hentig Expedition
After fruitless negotiations with Emir Habibullah of Afghanistan, the Niedermayer-Hentig Expedition departs Kabul, splitting into several parties and traveling home to Germany in different directions to avoid detection. The Indian members stay on, still holding out hopes for an Afghan alliance.