Southern Asia 1920: Turkish-Armenian War
The Treaty of Sevres granted Armenia a large swathe of eastern Anatolia as reparation for the Ottoman Empire’s persecution of the Armenians during World War I. However this territory was now under the control of the Turkish Nationalists, who invaded the Republic of Armenia itself in September. Facing the prospect of Turkish occupation, the Armenians were forced to renounce their claims under Sevres on December 3. The following day, Soviet troops, who were already invading from Azerbaijan, entered Yerevan, bringing Armenia’s independence to an end.
Changes to the map 10 August 1920–28 November 1920
Turkish-Armenian War: Turkey has invaded Armenia, capturing Kars and Alexandropol. In eastern Armenia, the Soviets are in occupation of the disputed area between Armenia and Azerbaijan and beginning their movement into the Armenian heartland.
Greco-Turkish War: The Greeks have begun their next big push into Turkey, occupying Usak and Afyonkarahisar. At home, however, the Greek government has been undermined when King Alexander dies from a pet monkey bite and Prime Minister Venizelos falls from power.
Franco-Turkish War: The French have been forced to evacuate Saimbeyli and much of Cilicia in the face of Turkish Nationalist advances.
Jordan: The British have persuaded the Jordanian sheikdoms to accept their protection.
Bukhara: The Soviet have invaded Bukhara and helped create the Bukharan People’s Soviet Republic, but the forces of the Emirate fight on in the southeast.
British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf
The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintained British India’s influence in a number of Gulf states from the 19th Century until 1947. These states were nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman was the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.
Trucial Oman was the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region were often called the Trucial States, and later became the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they had little unity, with no regional council until 1952.
The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, was comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.
The area under direct British rule was known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.
Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, were the hundreds of protectorates or ‘princely states’. These were indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others were either collected into agencies - which might in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fell under the sway of the provinces.
28 Aug-3 Sep 1920 Overthrow of the Emirate of Bukhara▲
Red Army troops from Soviet Russia, led by Mikhail Frunze, attack Bukhara, capital of the Emirate of Bukhara, with the support of Young Bukharan activists. On 31 August, Emir Alim Khan flees to Dushanbe in eastern Bukhara, where a rival Emirate is set up. The Emir’s citadel in Bukhara falls to the Red Army two days later, leading to the proclamation of the Bukharan People’s Soviet Republic the following month.
13 Sep-3 Dec 1920 Turkish-Armenian War▲
Turkish Nationalist forces cross into the Republic of Armenia in a surprise offensive, capturing Kars by the end of October and Alexandropol on 7 November. With their capital of Yerevan under threat and Soviet Russians invading from Azerbaijan, the Armenians sues for peace. At the Treaty of Alexandropol on December 3 they agree to cede Kars to Turkey and renounce their claims to Wilsonian Armenia.
25 Sep 1920 Treaty of Seeb▲
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, under Sultan Taimur bin Feisal, signs the Treaty of Seeb with the Imamate of Oman, recognizing the autonomy of the Imamate within Muscat and Oman. The Treaty eases tensions between the two polities and allows Britain to withdraw its garrison from Oman.