Southern Asia 1919: Turkish War of Independence
After occupying Constantinople, the Allies had proceeded to partition the Ottoman Empire, even including much of the Empire’s Anatolian heartland. This alarmed Turkish nationalists, who rallied behind the war hero Mustafa Kemal to assert Turkey’s independence.
Changes to the map 09 August 1919–27 December 1919
Turkish War of Independence: Mustafa Kemal's call for revolution at Sivas has encouraged most of inland Turkey to join the cause of the Turkish Nationalists. On December 27, he arrives in Ankara - his new headquarters and the future capital of Turkey. In the west, the parliament of the Ottoman Empire secretly supports Kemal, but the Sultan remains under the Allied thumb. France is moving to replace the British garrisons in Urfa but is coming into increasing conflict with the Nationalists.
Russian Civil War: The Soviets have captured Omsk - the capital of Kolchak's All-Russian Republic. With this the White cause has begun to collapse, allowing the Soviet forces in Siberia to link up with the Turkestan ASR.
Caucasus: The British have withdrawn from Baku and much of the rest of the region, except for a garrison in Batum. The British withdrawal and weakening of White power has allowed Daghestan and the North Caucasian Emirate to assert their independence.
British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf
The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintains British India influence in a number of Gulf states. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.
Trucial Oman is the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region are often called the Trucial States, and will become the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they have little unity, with no regional council until 1952.
The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, is comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.
The area under direct British rule is known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.
Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, are the hundreds of protectorates or 'princely states'. These are indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others are either collected into agencies - which may in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fall under the sway of the provinces.
16 Aug 1919 British withdrawal from Baku▲
British forces withdraw from Baku, Azerbaijan. By the end of the month, their only remaining forces in Transcaucasia are at Batum, Georgia.
4-11 Sep 1919 Sivas Congress▲
At the calling of Mustafa Kemal, Turkish Nationalist Party delegates from all the Anatolian provinces of the Ottoman Empire assemble at Sivas, in central Turkey, to organize Turkish resistance against the Allies.
17 Oct 1919-1 Nov 1922 Khilafat Movement▲
’Khilafat Day’ is declared in India by Indian Muslims who feared the Allies would abolish the Ottoman Caliphate. Prominent Muslim leaders form the All India Khilafat Committee in Lucknow, India, to call upon Britain to protect the Caliphate and the movement spreads across the country, gaining support from non-Muslims such as Mahatma Gandhi. Ultimately the movement fails when the Turks themselves abolish the Caliphate.
14 Nov 1919 Fall of Omsk▲
Omsk, capital of Admiral Alexander Kolchak’s All-Russian Government, is evacuated by White forces, Kolchak himself having fled for Irkutsk the day before. Soviet Russia’s Red Army takes the city without any serious resistance, capturing large amounts of ammunition, almost 50,000 soldiers, and ten generals.
21 Nov 1919 Outbreak of Franco-Turkish War▲
Four days after landing at Mersin to take over British positions in Cilicia, the French encounter Turkish Nationalists in the city of Mardin, in the eastern tip of the intended occupation zone. Unprepared for resistance, the French evacuate the city that evening.
27 Nov 1919 Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine▲
The Kingdom of Bulgaria signs the Treaty of Neuilly with the Allied Powers of World War I at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. By the Treaty’s terms, Bulgaria cedes western Thrace to the Allies (who will pass it on to Greece) and territories in its west to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. It also abandons its gains in WWI, and agrees to reduce its army size and pay £100 million reparations.