Southern Asia 1911: Strangling of Persia
Endeavoring to modernize, the new constitutional Persian government hired American advisors. Russia responded first by orchestrating the return of the ex-Shah, then, when he was defeated by the reformed Persian army, directly invading northern Persia. Britain applied pressure in the south, reactionaries in Tehran overthrew the Majlis, and the Americans were expelled. Anglo-Russian influence in Persia was again secure.
British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf
The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintains British India influence in a number of Gulf states. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.
Trucial Oman is the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region are often called the Trucial States, and will become the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they have little unity, with no regional council until 1952.
The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, is comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.
The area under direct British rule is known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.
Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, are the hundreds of protectorates or 'princely states'. These are indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others are either collected into agencies - which may in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fall under the sway of the provinces.
29 Nov 1911 Second Russian Ultimatum to Persia▲
After an initial Russian demand (Nov. 2) is reluctantly accepted by the Persian Majlis on the 24th, Russia sends out a second ultimatum, insisting that the Persian government deport treasurer-general Morgan Shuster, give assurances it will not to employ foreigners without Anglo-Russian consent, and pay for the deployment of Russian troops in Persia. The Majlis is given 48 hours to accept the terms or face Russian invasion.
1–23 Dec 1911 Russian intervention in Persia▲
After the second Russian ultimatum to the Persian government is rejected by the Majlis (parliament), Russian troops who have already assembled in the Persian port of Anzali proceed to march on Qazvin, within striking distance of Tehran. Meanwhile fighting breaks out with Russian forces in Tabriz. In response, the Persian cabinet resigns but the Majlis stands firm.
12 Dec 1911 Delhi Durbar of 1911▲
The Durbar is held in Delhi to commemorate the coronation in Britain of King George V and Queen Mary and allow their proclamation as Emperor and Empress of India. The King-Emperor—the first personally present at a Durbar—announces the movement of the capital of India from Calcutta to New Delhi and lays the foundation stone of New Delhi.
24 Dec 1911 1911 Persian Coup▲
The Persian cabinet executes a coup d’etat against the Majlis in Tehran, using gendarmes and Bakhtiyari tribesmen to empty parliament grounds. The new provisional government accepts the Russian ultimatum of November 29, prompting treasurer-general Morgan Shuster and his American associates to resign and leave the city.