Political map of South & Southwest Asia 24 December 1911 (Strangling of Persia): Endeavoring to modernize, the new constitutional Persian government (Persian Constitutional Revolution) hired American advisors (Morgan Shuster). Russia responded first by orchestrating the return of the ex-Shah (Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar), then, when he was defeated by the reformed Persian army, directly invading northern Persia (Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911). Britain applied pressure in the south, reactionaries in Tehran overthrew the Majlis (Majlis of Iran), and the Americans were expelled. Anglo-Russian influence in Persia was again secure.