Southern Asia 1925: Great Syrian Revolt
The French rule in Syria which followed the 1920 destruction of the Arab Kingdom was resented by much of the local population. In 1925 the French imprisoned a delegation from southern Syria who were protesting the poor treatment of the Druze by French authorities. This triggered a Druze revolt, which defeated several French attacks, leading to rebellion and unrest across much of Syria and Lebanon. Eventually the French brought in more forces and suppressed the revolt, but anti-French discontent in Syria would continue until its independence.
Changes to the map 12 May 1925–24 August 1925
Great Syrian Revolt: The Druze have taken over much of southern Syria and threaten Damascus and Lebanon.
Soviet Union: The Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR have acceded to the Soviet Union.
Somalia: Italy has taken control of Jubaland (Trans-Juba) from Britain.
Siam: The British influence in the south and west of Siam has been ended with the Anglo-Siamese Agreement.
British Protectorates in the Persian Gulf
The British Residency of the Persian Gulf maintains British India influence in a number of Gulf states. These states are nominally independent - and shown as such in most atlases from the period - but have all signed treaties guaranteeing British control over their foreign affairs.
The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is the only one of these states with significant international relations, having obtained trade agreements with the US and France before it signed its treaty with Britain. Maps of the time often show Trucial Oman and even Qatar as regions of Oman.
Trucial Oman is the region to the west of Oman which collectively signed treaties with Britain. The sheikhdoms of this region are often called the Trucial States, and will become the United Arab Emirates. However at this time they have little unity, with no regional council until 1952.
The British Indian Empire, also known as the British Raj, is comprised of a complex of presidencies, provinces, protectorates, and agencies. Only the top level subdivisions are shown here.
The area under direct British rule is known as British India and made up of presidencies and provinces - a presidency simply being the name for an older province.
Outside British India, but often included within the sphere of the presidencies/provinces, are the hundreds of protectorates or 'princely states'. These are indirectly ruled states, the largest being Hyderabad, Kashmir, and Mysore. The others are either collected into agencies - which may in turn contain other smaller agencies - or fall under the sway of the provinces.
13 May 1925 Accession of Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic▲
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic formally accedes to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, becoming one of the constituent republics of that union.
13 May 1925 Accession of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic▲
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic formally accedes to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, becoming one of the constituent republics of that union.
11 Jul 1925–? Jun 1927 Great Syrian Revolt▲
The French High Commissioner imprisons a Druze delegation to Beirut, capital of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon, prompting the Druze of Jabal Druze State to rise up against the French. Under the leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, the Druze defeat the French in a number of encounters, encouraging further outbreaks of rebellion in Damascus, Hama, and among the Druze of eastern Lebanon. The French respond to these initial setbacks by increasing troop numbers, decisively defeating the Druze by the end of 1925. Nonetheless, unrest will continue into 1927.
14 Jul 1925 Anglo-Siam Agreement▲
The United Kingdom signs the Anglo-Siam Agreement with the Kingdom of Siam, renouncing Britain’s special rights in Siam—in particular its sphere of influence in the west and south of the country—and arranging for the arbitration of disputes with the Siamese government.