Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 29 Dec 1890 (Closing the Frontier: Wounded Knee Massacre), showing the following events: Panama crisis; Geronimo's final surrender; Anglo-Venezuelan rupture; Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act; North & South Dakota become US states; Montana becomes US state; Washington becomes US state; Oklahoma Organic Act; Idaho becomes US state; Wyoming becomes US state; Wounded Knee Massacre.

Wounded Knee Massacre

Closing the Frontier

North America 1890.1229

Wounded Knee Massacre

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (29 December 1890)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

By 1890, American Indian resistance in the western United States had been crushed and settlers and railways had closed the frontier. In this environment of despair, the apocalyptic Ghost Dance religion spread quickly among Indian communities from California to Oklahoma, alarming white authorities. When, in December, 500 US Cavalry intercepted a group of 350 Lakota, mostly Ghost Dance practitioners, in South Dakota, tensions quickly led to a one-sided battle at Wounded Knee. This massacre was the last major conflict of the Indian Wars.

Main Events

Panama crisis

The United States intervened in Panama to restore order; Chile sent in a cruiser as a show of force.

Geronimo's final surrender

Apache leader Geronimo and his band officially surrendered to US General Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona.

Anglo-Venezuelan rupture

On 26 January 1887, the Venezuelan government demanded that Britain withdraw its settlers from the disputed region between British Guiana and Venezuela. Following the British government's failure to accept this demand, Venezuela broke diplomatic relations in February 1887. Proposals to restore relations and resolve the dispute would fail repeatedly, turning the issue into a crisis between the two countries.

Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act

The Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act defined the boundary between Ontario and Manitoba.

North & South Dakota become US states

The Dakota Territory was split in two and admitted to the US as the states of North Dakota and South Dakota.

Montana becomes US state

The Montana Territory was admitted to the US as the state of Montana.

Washington becomes US state

Washington Territory admitted to US as state of Washington

Oklahoma Organic Act

The Oklahoma Territory was organized from the western portion of the Indian Territory.

Idaho becomes US state

The Idaho Territory was admitted to the US as the state of Idaho.

Wyoming becomes US state

The Wyoming Territory was admitted to US as the state of Wyoming.

Wounded Knee Massacre

The US 7th Cavalry killed about 300 Lakota near Wounded Knee Creek.

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