Russia 1917: February Revolution
By February 1917 (according to the old style Julian calendar still in use in Russia), the Tsarist system was on the brink of collapse. Russia’s troops were demoralized, its economy was crumbling, and discontent was everywhere. On 8 March (23 February old style), riots broke out in Petrograd, the capital, and within two days the city had been almost completely closed down. Tsar Nicholas II’s attempts to end the disorder simply resulted in troop mutinies and the disintegration of the police force. On the 15th, the Tsar abdicated and the Provisional Government of Prince George Lvov, Paul Milivkov and Alexander Kerensky took over.
4 Aug 1914 British entry into World War I▲
In response to the German invasion of Belgium - whose neutrality was safeguarded by the 1839 Treaty of London - the United Kingdom declared war on Germany, bringing the British Empire into World War I.
29 Oct 1914 Ottoman entry into World War I▲
In a surprise attack, Ottoman warships bombarded the Russian ports of Odessa and Sevastopol, initiating war with the Russian Empire and bringing the Ottoman Empire into the Great War on the side of the Central Powers.
1 May-18 Sep 1915 Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive▲
Germany overruns Poland and Lithuania
6 Dec 1916 Central Powers occupy Bucharest▲
Just four months after entering the war, Romanian forces were forced to retreat east by the Austrians and Germans led by Field Marshal August von Mackensen. On 6 December, the Central Powers entered Bucharest, forcing the Romanian government to retreat to Iași.
8-12 Mar 1917 February Revolution▲
Mass demonstrations broke out in Petrograd, capital of the Russian Empire, in March (late February in the Julian calendar) in response to economic and social problems, compounded by the strain of World War I. After a few days, the mutinous Russian Army sided with the revolutionaries, forcing Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate in favor of a Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov.