Northern Eurasia 1919: Revolution in Europe

The successes of Soviet Russia inspired dreams and fears of revolution in war-weary Europe. The most serious outbreaks were in Hungary and Germany. However, there were no long term successes. Bela Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic lasted half a year before being crushed by Romania. None of the numerous revolutions across Germany survived more than a month.

Main Events

29 Oct–9 Nov 1918 German Revolution

In response to the unauthorized 24 October 1918 German naval command directive to engage the Royal Navy in a final battle, sailors mutinied in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. On 4 November the mutineers took control of Kiel, encouraging seamen, soldiers, and urban workers across the country to also rise in revolt against the imperial order. By 9 November, workers’ and soldiers’ councils had taken power in most of Germany’s cities and a republic was wikipedia

5 Feb 1919 Bolsheviks take Kiev

Bolsheviks take Kievin wikipedia

11 Mar–1 Apr 1919 British withdrawal from Transcaspian region

British withdraw from Transcaspian region via wikipedia

21 Mar 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic

Five months after the Hungarian Democratic Republic was established, the Hungarian Communists, led by imprisoned leader Béla Kun, led a coup against the ruling Social Democrats, establishing the Hungarian Soviet wikipedia