Northern Eurasia 2015: Syrian Civil War
The expansion of Daesh (ISIS or ISIL) in northern Iraq in 2014 prompted a US-led intervention in support of the Iraqi government. Facing new opposition in Iraq, Daesh increased its activity in neighboring Syria instead, exacerbating the civil war already raging in that country. Wary that the Syrian government—which had close military ties with Russia—might fall either to Daesh or to US-backed rebel factions, the Russians began mounting airstrikes in support of the regime.
5 Sep–3 Dec 2014 Coalitions against Daesh▲
The United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Australia, Turkey, Italy, Poland, and Denmark agreed to support anti-Daesh forces in Iraq and Syria with supplies and air support. Ten days later, Bahrain, Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Belgium, China, Czech Republic, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, and Spain also committed to supporting the Iraqi government in its fight against Daesh's self-proclaimed Islamic State. On December 3, the countries mentioned above, with the exception of China and Russia, formed a coalition with another 33 countries to cut off Daesh's financing and coordinate and support military operations.
1 Jan 2015 Eurasian Economic Union▲
On 29 May 2014, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia signed the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), creating a single economic market, with Armenia and Kyrgyzstan joining later that year. The EAEU would succeed the Eurasian Economic Community (2000-2014), coming into effect on 1 January 2015.
15 Feb 2015 Minsk II▲
After talks between the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany at Minsk, Belarus, an immediate and full ceasefire came into effect in particular districts of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine. This largely brought an end to fighting in the Donbass War, although there were still occasional skirmishes over the following two years.
30 Sep 2015 Russian intervention in Syria▲
After a formal request from the Syrian government, the Russian Federation began a military intervention in the Syrian Civil War by mounting air strikes in areas around the cities of Homs and Hama. The United States and Saudi Arabia disputed Russian allegations that the strikes were directed only against Daesh (ISIL) positions, claiming that moderate Syrian opposition forces were being hit.