Russia 1919: Revolution in Europe
The successes of Soviet Russia inspired dreams and fears of revolution in war-weary Europe. The most serious outbreaks were in Hungary and Germany. However, there were no long term successes. Bela Kun’s Hungarian Soviet Republic lasted half a year before being crushed by Romania. None of the numerous revolutions across Germany survived more than a month.
29 Oct-9 Nov 1918 German Revolution▲
In response to the unauthorized 24 October 1918 German naval command directive to engage the Royal Navy in a final battle, sailors mutinied in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. On 4 November the mutineers took control of Kiel, encouraging seamen, soldiers, and urban workers across the country to also rise in revolt against the imperial order. By 9 November, workers’ and soldiers’ councils had taken power in most of Germany’s cities and a republic was declared.
5 Feb 1919 Bolsheviks take Kiev▲
Bolsheviks take Kiev
11 Mar-1 Apr 1919 British withdrawal from Transcaspian region▲
British withdraw from Transcaspian region via Ashqabad.
21 Mar 1919 Hungarian Soviet Republic▲
Five months after the Hungarian Democratic Republic was established, the Hungarian Communists, led by imprisoned leader Béla Kun, led a coup against the ruling Social Democrats, establishing the Hungarian Soviet Republic.