East Asia 1901: Boxer Protocol
In August 1900, the Allies captured Peking, defeating the remnants of the Boxer Rebellion over the following year. Peace was concluded with the Boxer Protocol, in which the Allies forced China to pay a large indemnity and allow continued foreign military access to Peking as a guard against future uprisings.
Treaty ports - the small unlabelled circles on the map - were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China, Japan, and Korea. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country's laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.
Only treaty ports that were opened by treaty and used are shown on the maps. Treaty ports are also not generally shown in places which are already covered by concessions or under occupation. Treaty ports are not shown after the 1911 Chinese Revolution, although they continued on into the 1940s.
By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.
1 Jan 1901 Federation of Australia▲
The Constitution of Australia comes into force, uniting the British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia as states of the new Commonwealth of Australia. As a compromise between Sydney and Melbourne, Parliament is to sit in Melbourne until a federal capital is constructed at a site in southern New South Wales.
23 Mar 1901 Fall of First Philippine Republic▲
A United States expedition led by General Frederick Funston and aided by Filipino Macabebe Scouts, captured President Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippine Republic in his headquarters in Palanan, Isabela. In April, Aguinaldo issued a Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, ending the First Philippine Republic.
7 Sep 1901 Boxer Protocol▲
The Chinese Empire signed the Boxer Protocol with the Eight-Nation Alliance (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands, bringing an end to the Boxer Rebellion. The terms demanded that China pay an indemnity of 450 million taels of fine silver over 39 years at 4% interest, allow foreign countries to base their troops in Peking (Beijing), destroy the Taku Forts (leaving the sea approach to Tianjin undefended), prohibit anti-foreign organizations, and apologize to Germany for the assassination of Baron von Ketteler.