Asia Pacific 1938: Battle of Tai'erzhuang
Despite the outcry over the fall of Shanghai and the Rape of Nanking, the Western powers were not prepared to intervene against Japan. However there was some hope for the Chinese - in April their troops managed their first major victory, defeating the Japanese at Tai’erzhuang and temporarily preventing the connection of the two Japanese armies.
Treaty ports were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country’s laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.
Treaty ports are not shown in the maps after the 1911 Chinese Revolution in order to give a clearer picture of the chaos in China itself and as by that point their numbers had stabilized. After the revolution, some of the smaller ports were phased out while the others became less important as the situation in China meant that only the concessions could provide foreigners with security. Most, however, still continued on into the 1940s when the Japanese entry into World War II and foreign agreements with China brought them to an end.
See this map for treaty ports in 1907, when the system was at its peak.
By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.
14 Dec 1937 Japanese back creation of Provisional Government of the Republic of China in northern China▲
Japanese back creation of Provisional Government of the Republic of China in northern China
Jan 1938 Communist Chinese infiltration into Shanxi-Hebei-Chahar▲
Communist Chinese infiltration into Shanxi-Hebei-Chahar
13 Mar 1938 Anschluss▲
On March 1938, Hitler demanded that the government of Austria cede power to that country’s branch of the Nazi Party. In a desperate attempt to preserve independence and garner the support of France and Britain (as stipulated in the Treaty of Versailles), the ruling Christian Social Party held a referendum on annexation (Anschluss), but the yes vote won overwhelmingly, with 99.7% of the vote.
28 Mar 1938 Japanese back creation of Reformed Government of the Republic of China▲
Japanese back creation of Reformed Government of the Republic of China
28 Mar-8 Apr 1938 Chinese defeat Japanese at Battle of Taierzhuang▲
Chinese defeat Japanese at Battle of Taierzhuang