Asia Pacific 1898: Treaty of Paris
American gains in the Spanish-American War were confirmed at the Treaty of Paris, ceding Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States. The US cemented its position as a Pacific empire by annexing Hawaii and Wake Island, while the Spanish cut their losses by selling their remaining Pacific islands to Germany.
Treaty ports - the small unlabelled circles on the map - were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China, Japan, and Korea. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country’s laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.
Only treaty ports that were opened by treaty and used are shown on the maps. Treaty ports are also not generally shown in places which are already covered by concessions or under occupation. Treaty ports are not shown after the 1911 Chinese Revolution, although they continued on into the 1940s.
By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.
12 Aug 1898 Annexation of Hawaii▲
After an 1897 attempt by United States President William McKinley to annex the Republic of Hawaii failed in the Senate, McKinley succeeded in pushing through the Newlands Resolution in July 1898. Under this resolution, the US officially annexed the Republic of Hawaii on 12 August in a ceremony held on the steps of ʻIolani Palace. The republic became the new Territory of Hawaii.
12 Aug 1898 Washington Peace Protocol▲
The United States and Spain signed the Washington Peace Protocol, agreeing to end hostilities and negotiate a peace treaty in Paris later that year.
13 Aug 1898 Battle of Manila▲
Unaware of the signing of the Washington Peace Protocol the day before, United States forces under Brigadier General Wesley Merritt and Commodore George Dewey launched an attack on Manila, capital of the Spanish Philippines. The battle had been arranged between the two sides to avoid Manila falling into the hands of the US-allied Philippine Revolutionary Army, leading to the US capture of the city with only a handful of casualties.
10 Dec 1898 Treaty of Paris▲
The United States of America signed the Treaty of Paris with the Kingdom of Spain, bringing a formal end to the Spanish-American War. By the terms of the treaty, Spain ceded Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the US (although the US agreed to pay $20 million for the Philippines). The Treaty of Paris came into effect on 11 April 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged.