the Arctic 1898: Klondike Gold Rush
On 16 August 1896 gold was discovered on the Yukon River, in the Klondike region of Canada’s North-West Territories, sparking the biggest population migration the far north has ever seen. As the fastest routes to the gold fields were through Alaska, the Klondike Gold Rush also transformed this district, forcing the resolution of the Canada-Alaska boundary dispute.
24 Jun 1893–20 Aug 1896 Nansen’s Fram expedition▲
The Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen set out from Christiania, Norway, aboard the Fram in an attempt to reach the geographical North Pole by drifting in pack ice. On 9 October 1893, at about 79°N, the Fram entered the ice—which its specially designed hull successfully withstood—but drifted so slowly it did not reach 80°N until March 1894. When it passed 84°N on 14 March the following year, Nansen left the ship in an attempt to march on the Pole, while the Fram drifted as far as 85°55′N, before finally emerging from the ice in June 1896.
14 Mar 1895–13 Aug 1896 Nansen’s march for the Pole▲
The Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen left the Fram with a team of dogs and sledges and made for the North Pole. After several attempts, during which they constantly fought the southerly drift of the ice, they ultimately achieved a record Farthest North latitude of 86°13.6’N on 7 April, before being forced to retreat to Franz Josef Land.
16 Aug 1896–? ?? 1899 Klondike Gold Rush▲
American and Tagish prospectors discovered gold on the banks of Rabbit Creek (now Bonanza Creek), one of the tributaries of the Klondike River, in the Yukon district of Canada’s North-West Territories. When the news became widely known the following year, some 100,000 people attempted to reach the goldfields, mostly traveling via Alaska.
? ?? 1898–? ?? 1902 Sverdrup Islands discovered▲
The Norwegian explorer Otto Sverdrup, set off on his second expedition with the Fram—he was also on Nansen’s 1893-1896 expedition—in an attempt to circumnavigate Greenland. Unable to make it through Nares Strait, he spent three winters on Ellesmere Island from where he discovered what became known as the Sverdrup Islands. Claiming all three islands for Norway, he set off a sovereignty dispute with Canada which lasted until 1930.
13 Jun 1898 Yukon Territory▲
In response to the influx of miners due to the Klondike Gold Rush, the Dominion of Canada separated the District of Yukon in the North-West Territories, creating the Yukon Territory.