the Arctic 1818: Treaty of 1818
The War of 1812 between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that year. Both nations had expanded across North America during the wars and the restoration of peace allowed them to settle their numerous disputes. In 1818, they signed the Anglo-American Convention, defining the boundary between British North America and the US and granting the two nations joint occupation of Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest.
1 Nov 1814–9 Jun 1815 Congress of Vienna▲
The Congress of Vienna—a conference of ambassadors from most of the European states chaired by Austrian stateman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich—met in Vienna, capital of the Austrian Empire. The Congress redrew the map of Europe to settle issues arising from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Most notably it increased the territory of Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and created a united Netherlands (including modern Belgium).
4 Nov 1814 Union between Sweden and Norway▲
In accordance with the Convention of Moss between Norway and Sweden, King Christian Frederick of Norway transferred executive power to the Storting (Norwegian Parliament) in October 1814, then abdicated his throne and returned to Denmark. After making the necessary constitutional amendments, the Storting elected Charles XIII, King of Sweden, as King of Norway in November. This confirmed the Union between two countries in line with the Treaty of Kiel, but let Norway retain control over its internal policies.
18 Feb 1815 Treaty of Ghent▲
On 24 December 1814 representatives of Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Ghent in Ghent, Netherlands, to end the War of 1812. The treaty came into effect in February 1815, upon unanimous ratification by the United States Senate and the exchange of ratifications the following day.
18 Jun 1815 Battle of Waterloo▲
In June 1815 Napoleon led the French Grande Armée into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in an attempt to separately attack and destroy the two Seventh Coalition armies—one British-led and one Prussian—mobilizing there. Meeting the British and allied forces under the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo, in what is now Belgium, Napoleon attempted to break through their lines in a number of assaults, but was unsuccessful. The battle ended when the arrival of the Prussian army under Gerbhard von Blücher, and a counteroffensive by the Anglo-allies, routed the French. The defeat ended Napoleon’s brief return in the Hundred Days, forcing him to abdicate a few days later.
20 Oct 1818 Treaty of 1818▲
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was signed in London. The treaty resolved boundary issues between the US and British North America, including ceding Britain’s Red River Colony south of the 49th Parallel to the US and allowing for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country (known to British as the Columbia District).