the Arctic 1818: Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that year. Both nations had expanded across North America during the wars and the restoration of peace allowed them to settle their numerous disputes. In 1818, they signed the Anglo-American Convention, defining the boundary between British North America and the US and granting the two nations joint occupation of Oregon Country in the Pacific Northwest.
1 Nov 1814-9 Jun 1815 Congress of Vienna▲
The Congress of Vienna - a conference of ambassadors from most of the European states chaired by Austrian stateman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich - met in Vienna, capital of the Austrian Empire. The Congress redrew the map of Europe to settle issues arising from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Most notably it increased the territory of Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and created a united Netherlands (including modern Belgium).
4 Nov 1814 Union between Sweden and Norway▲
Following the abdication of King Christian Frederick of Norway, the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) elected Charles XIII, King of Sweden, as King of Norway, thereby confirming the Union between two countries in line with the 1814 Treaty of Kiel.
18 Feb 1815 Treaty of Ghent▲
The United States Senate unanimously ratified the Treaty of Ghent (signed on 24 December 1814), formally ending the War of 1812 with the United Kingdom.
18 Jun 1815 Battle of Waterloo▲
The French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated near Waterloo, southern Netherlands (modern Belgium), by British and allied forces under the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under Gerbhard von Blücher. The defeat ended Napoleon’s brief return in the Hundred Days, forcing him to abdicate and surrender to the British a week later.
20 Oct 1818 Treaty of 1818▲
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was signed in London. The treaty resolved boundary issues between the US and British North America, including ceding Britain’s Red River Colony south of the 49th Parallel to the US and allowing for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country (known to British as the Columbia District).