the Arctic 1943: North Atlantic Weather War
Increasing Allied dominance of the Arctic also gave them a massive advantage in meteorology - storms would often arise in this region and placing weather stations in the Arctic was the most accurate way of forecasting when these fronts would hit Europe. As weather data was not only vital for planning convoys, bombing raids, and amphibious assaults, but also predicting when they might occur, the Germans made continuous attempts to covertly place manned and unmanned weather stations in the far north, especially in Svalbard and Greenland.
27 Mar 1943 Battle of the Komandorski Islands▲
The United States and the Empire of Japan fought a naval engagement south of the Komandorski Islands, Soviet Union. Although both fleets suffered damage, the Japanese were forced to withdraw, ending their attempts to resupply their garrisons in Attu and Kiska.
11–30 May 1943 Battle of Attu▲
United States forces landed on Attu Island, Territory of Alaska, defeating the strongly entrenched Japanese occupation force over the following weeks.
15 Aug 1943 Operation Cottage▲
United States and Canadian forces landed unopposed on Kiska Island, Territory of Alaska. Despite the Japanese garrison having departed two weeks earlier, confusion, mines, and thick fog would lead to over 300 casualties during the securing of the island.
8 Sep 1943 Operation Zitronella▲
In Operation Zitronella, 600 German soldiers supported by the battleships Tirpitz and Scharnhorst and nine destroyers attacked Free Norwegian positions on Spitsbergen Island in an eight-hour raid. After briefly seizing installations at Barentsburg and destroying coal depots and other facilities, the Germans withdrew. At the same time, under cover of the attack, the Luftwaffe installed a weather station on Hope Island.
15 Sep 1943–10 Jul 1944 Schatzgräber station▲
The Germans established the Schatzgräber ("Treasure Hunter") meteorological station on Alexandra Land, in the Soviet archipelago of Franz Josef Land. After most of the expedition were stricken with trichinosis after eating raw polar bear meat, the station was abandoned and the survivors evacuated.
15 Sep 1943–? Jun 1944 Bassgeiger weather station▲
A German meteorological expedition established Bassgeiger weather station at Kap Sussi on the north tip of Shannon Island, Greenland; in the process wrecking their ship Coburg off the Shannon coast. The station survived under difficult conditions for about nine months, eventually being evacuated by air after a clash with the Northeast Greenland Sledge Patrol in April 1944.
22 Oct 1943 Weather Station Kurt▲
In the only known armed German military operation on the North American mainland during World War II, a German U-boat crew erected automatic Weather Station Kurt (Wetter-Funkgerät Land-26) in northern Labrador, Dominion of Newfoundland. After the war, the station was forgotten about until its rediscovery in 1977.